Abstracts (APMT-2020)

During the 3rd APMT-2020 conference following topics were presented:

Adsorption heat energy regenerators based on polymeric composite materials “silica gel – sodium sulfate” and “silica gel sodium acetate”             Bielianovska O.A., Lytovchenko R.D., Sukhyi K.M., Skliarenko A.I., Sukhyi M.P     SHEI Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine

In the paper was studies the performance characteristics of the adsorption regenerator of low-potential heat and moisture based on the composite adsorbents “silica gel – sodium sulfate” and “silica gel – sodium acetate”, synthesized by sol-gel method. The optimal composition of composite adsorbents – 20% silica gel and 80% salt. Established optimal operating parameters of adsorption regenerators based on the composites “silica gel – sodium sulfate” and “silica gel – sodium acetate”. The results of the study can be used in the development of energy-efficient ventilation systems for storages.

Primary fibers production technology                                                                      Cheropkina R.I., Tatarova K.O., Shevchenko A.A.                                               National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”

In the paper was carried out the analysis of the causes of reducing the paper-forming properties of the secondary fibers. Presented the ways of increasing mechanical properties of waste fibers due to the use of primary non-wood semi-finished products in the composition. Studied the application of corn wastes in the form of cob wrappers for semi-finished products. The results obtained and the theoretical information about the fibers of non-wood raw materials give reason to consider this raw material as promising.

The application of additive technologies for obtaining latting materials on the basis of the thermoplastic polyurethane                                                                  Verbylo D.H.1, Pylypenko A.M.2, Sova N.V.3, Savchenko B.M.3, Chyshko V.V.2  1Institute for Problems in Materials Science (IPMS) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)                                                                                      2 The Dоnetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O.Galkin (DonIPE) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)                       3 Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Static and dynamic mechanical properties of lattice materials (with different cell geometry) were investigated experimentally on the basis of thermoplastic polyurethane obtained by the layer-by-layer melt deposition method. Samples are characterized by significant anisotropy of mechanical characteristics depending on the direction of printing and the application of load. Physical mechanisms of observed differences in properties are discussed.

Study of the influence of sand content and modifying additives on the properties of polymer-concrete compositions                                                   Novak D.S.1, Bereznenko N.M.2, Seredenko A.A.1, Pishchulin O.H.1                                     1Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design                                                 2State Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, Kyiv

The aim of this work was to determine the effect of sand content and modifying additives on the hardness, compressive strength and toughness of polymer concrete compositions.

Polymer concrete compositions based on CHROMOPLAST GP 2000 polyester resin, Luperox K1 hardener (organic peroxide for cold curing), cobalt stearate (cobalt salt of stearic acid), styrene and river sand in the form of round pancakes were used for the research. Samples of polymer concrete composites were obtained by mixing resin with sand with the gradual addition of hardener, styrene and cobalt stearate. Metal molds with bent sides were used to obtain the cured polyester composition; ceramic molds (not enameled); metal molds 2 cm high. Hardness, compressive strength and toughness of the developed compositions were investigated by standard methods.

The increase in sand content to 90% of the mass in the polymer-concrete composition leads to an increase in the hardness index by ~ 466%, as well as a decrease in the compressive strength by ~ 62% and toughness by ~ 50%. This is due to the fact that the sand has a higher hardness than polyester resin, and accordingly, increasing its content leads to an increase in the hardness of the composition. The decrease in compressive strength and toughness is due to a decrease in the amount of binder, which makes the composition more brittle. The developed polymer-concrete compositions can be used in construction, and also for repair of the damaged concrete surfaces and elimination of cracks.

Thermal physical properties of modified polylactide materials                      Andrii Masiuk, Khrystyna Kysil, Volodymyr Skorokhoda, Diana Katruk, Volodymyr Levytskyi                                                                                                                      Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

 Determined the influence of filler – talc and additional heat treatment on the thermophysical properties of polylactide. In particular, was noted an increase in Vick heat resistance and a change in the thermomechanical characteristics of heat treated filled materials.

Nanostructured composition materials for high-energy lithium-ion batteries Volodymyr Khomenko                                                                                                Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Polyfluorocarbon material obtained by fluorination of coal, in combination with nanosized carbon materials and high molecular weight polyvinylidene fluoride, can significantly improve the electrical characteristics of the lithium-ion batteries. The proposed composite electrically conductive additive based on different types of carbon materials is of considerable practical interest for application in the composition of cathode slurry with an electrically conductive additive content of less than 20%. Based on the above materials, it was possible to increase the cathode specific power by tens of times (up to 2 kW per 1 kg of polyfluorocarbon) and to reach a record discharge specific capacity of polyfluorocarbon of more than 800 mA*h/g.

Hydrolysates from chromed shavings for leather finish                                  Karolis Kubilius, Violeta Valeikiene, Virgilijus Valeika                                                    Kaunas University of Technology,  Kaunas, Lithuania

Leather’s finishing coatings were produced using collagen hydrolysate (CH) obtained from chromed shavings by alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis. The addition 5% collagen hydrolysate into finishing compositions increases tensile strength and relative elongation of films obtained from the compositions. Further increase of the collagen hydrolysate content in the films leads to worse mechanical properties of the films.

The influence of surfactants on the elastin membrane preparation and separation technologies                                                                                    Demetra Simion1, Carmen Gaidau1, Daniela Berechet1, Zhang Wenbo2, Jianzhong Ma2                                                                                                                                                                           1 INCDTP-Division: Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania     2 Shaanxi Research Institute of Agricultural Products Processing Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, PR China 

The influence of a classic surfactant: palmitoyl-glycylglycine and bola amphiphilic: bis[2-butyl(sodium bis-thioacetate) sodium dicarboxylate 1,10 decanediyl ester] upon the elastin membrane preparation and separation technologies for removing organic pollutants (dyes) was studied by: UV-VIS and FT/IR-ATR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, optical and scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, microbiological tests and the separation rates. Elastin is a fibrous connective tissue, and has elasticity comparable to rubber, arteries and some tendons. Like other biopolymers, elastin are composed of simple amino acids, especially: leucine, glycol and proline.   In this paper, the biomembranes were produced by a casting-solvent evaporation technique. The elastin powder was dissolved in a water- acetic acid (80:20 v/v) solution with and without plasticizer: glycerol and surfactant (classic or bola), constant continuous stirring for 4-6 hrs. at 60ºC, then degassed the solution for 2 hrs. The solution was poured and afterwards maintained in the oven at 40-50°C for 4-8 hrs.  Biomembranes were obtained with different surfactants which influenced the separation properties of membranes. Ecological biomembranes are obtained from a biodegradable biopolymer and can be used successfully in removing dyes from wastewaters.

Plastification of acrylic polymer by modified monmorylonite dispersion          Okhmat O. A.1, Bondarieva A. O.2, Marukhlenko M. O.1, Mokrousova O. R.1,2                1Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design                                               2Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics

Studied the deformation characteristics of acrylic polymer, for the plasticization of which was used modified dispersion of montmorillonite. Consumption of plasticizer up to 2.0% by weight of acrylic polymer, increases its ability to highly elastic deformation. The area of high elasticity is increased by the introduction of a high-sorption plasticizer into the acrylic polymer, which can at the same time contribute to the avoidance of instability in the polymer-plasticizer system.

Application of surface active substances for organomodification of aluminum    Lubska M.V., Bohdan A. V., Zhuravel A. Ye., Budash Yu.O.                                     Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Studied the possibility of using the different types of surface active substances (SAS) for modification of aluminum. The choice of one of the perspective cationic SAS is substantiated. Samples of organomodified montmorillonite were obtained, which were used to form composite monofilaments based on isotactic polypropylene by extrusion.

The influence of acid hydrolysis of starch on the physical mechanical properties of films                                                                                                     Ishchenko O.V., Kuchynska D.A., Liashok I.O., Kalinchuk O.O., Davydov D.               Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Studied the effect of citric acid concentration and the treatment duration of native starch on the starch modification process. During the modification, the degree of polymerization of starch decreases from 120 to 51. Studied the physical and mechanical characteristics of films based on modified starch, depending on the moisture of the environment. Developed a laboratory technique for producing PVA-based compositions and polysaccharides. The results of the study can be used to obtain films for medical applications.

Regulation of relaxation properties of non-woven materials based on PU/PA-6,6 fibers                                                                                                                              Kucherenko Ye.V., Plavan V.P., Budash Yu.O.                                                                 Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

The relaxation characteristics of non-woven materials based on PU/PA-6,6 fibers were determined by the method of stretching under conditions of increasing loading and unloading. Introduction into the initial mixture of up to 50 wt.% PET fibers allows to regulate the relaxation properties of nonwovens.

Application of polymeric materials in combined water treatment technologies    Shtepa V.M.1, Plavan V.P.2, Zaiets N.A.3, Krynytska N.2                                                 1Polessky State University, Pinsk, Belarus                                                                     2Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design                                               3National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

The article is devoted to the development of combined technology of tanneries wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment involves a combination of electrochemical oxidation with methods of coagulation and flocculation, for the intensification was used electrolysis processes and cavitation. Iron(III) chloride as a chemical coagulant and solution based on polyacrylamide as a flocculant were used. The proposed combined technology reduces the content of sulfides, chlorides, phosphates by 77.4 %, 10.9 % and 6.2 %, respectively. The content of chromium compounds decreased by 99.84 %.

Application of sorption method is proposed for deep wastewater treatment of tanneries. As sorption materials proposed application of fibrous waste from the textile industry based on high-volume combined loop threads consisting of polyurethane fibers and textured polyamide fibers 6.6 f20/1. To increase the hydrophilicity and sorption characteristics of the obtained material, up to 50% of fibrous waste of flax or hemp can be introduced into the composition.

Effectiveness of different thickeners types in recipes of acrylic water-dispersion paints                                                                                                       Saitarly S.V.1, Pushkarov Yu.M.1, Koliada M.K.2                                                                      1Odessa National Polytechnic University. Odessa, Ukraine                                          2Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Studied the rheological and structural-mechanical properties of acrylic water-dispersion paints with different thickeners. Polyurethane and acrylic thickeners form denser structural grid, which contributes to better thickening and viscosity of paint. Determined the thixotropic properties of the paint samples by the hysteresis loop area and the yield strength.

The influence of the pH of the environment on the quality of wool fibers dyeing with vegetable dyes                                                                                           Liashok I.O., Mykhailiuk D., Petrunko R., Perehinets O.                                             Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

In the article we studied the influence of pH on the quality of color during dyeing of protein fibers with plant dyes: extracts of oak bark and buckthorn, linden and hibiscus flowers. The change of pH of the dye solution leads to a change in the color of the finished samples, color resistance to dry and wet friction, sweat and soda solution.

PVA films and hydrogels based on oregano extract                                        Liashok I.O., Ishchenko O.V., Netreba L., Yanyshpilskyi D., Raskevych B.                 Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Oregano extract was used as a basis for creating polyvinyl alcohol solutions. The obtained films and cryohydrogels are resistant to distilled water and saline, as well as provide the release of plant extract from the polymer matrix of the film. The materials retain their performance properties without additional stabilization.

Research extraction ability of polyorganosiloxanes of cosmetic appointment  Ruslana Harhaun, Oleksandra Kunik, Diana Saribekova                                  Kherson National Technical University, Kherson, Ukraine

Possibility of using silicones for cosmetic purposes as extractants of biologically active substances of vegetable raw materials considers in this paper. The dependence between the physico-chemical properties of silicones and their extractive ability is revealed. The qualitative composition and quantitative content of the main biologically active substances was determined. It was found that the composition of amodimethicone and tridecet-12-cetrimonium chloride 1288, PEG-12 dimethicone 526, cyclopentasiloxane CM 50, phenyltrimethicone PTM 20 have high extractive properties. The prospect of further research in this direction has been proved.

Determination of resistance of original and functionalized textile materials based on acrylonitrile copolymers to thermal and thermoxide destruction           Haranina O.O., Romaniuk Ye.O., Yeroshenko S.M.                                                Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

The work is devoted to the study of thermal and thermooxidative destruction of nanomodified textile materials based on acrylonitrile copolymers. The resistance of modified fibrous materials to thermal (in an atmosphere of dry nitrogen) and thermooxide (in air) destruction was determined in a dynamic mode in an inert environment and in air in the temperature range from 293 to 973 ºK with a temperature rise rate of 10 ºK/min with constant removal of destruction products using the method of thermogravimetric analysis. Obtained the dependences of thermal effects on the temperature in the material and on the mass loss during destruction for each sample.

Polymer system for delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredient of flavonoid nature                                                                                                                 Volodymyr Bessarabov 1,2, Halyna Kuzmina 1, Liubov Vakhitova 2, Olha Baula 1, Volodymyr Vasylenko 1, Vadym Lisovyi 1, Oleksandr Ladan 1                                           1Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design                                                    2 L. M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)

Proposed method of increasing the solubility in polar solvents and, accordingly, the bioavailability of the sparingly soluble model flavonoid hesperidin by including in the composition of polymeric solid dispersed systems (SDS) in the form of a highly dispersed solid phase with the formation of intermolecular complexes of variable composition with carrier material. The dependence of flavonoid solubility on the composition of SDS was investigated. Urea, polyethylene glycol of various molecular weight, polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol, mannitol were used as carriers for the production of SDS. It is shown that the maximum value of the increase in solubility is observed in the system with urea in 25.1 times.

Thermal destruction of polymer-nanoclay nanocomposites in fire-protective intumescent coatings                                                                                          Kalafat K.V. 1, Taran N.A. 2, Plavan V.P. 1, Vakhitova L.M. 2                                          1Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design
2 L. M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)

The aim of this work is to determine the effect of organomodified  montmorillonite clay and thermally expandable graphite on the mechanism of thermodestruction and the flame retardant properties of the intumescent system of ammonium polyphosphate/ melamine/ pentaerythritol/ polymer (nanocomposite). The structure, physico-chemical and thermal properties of polymers and nanocomposites obtained from copolymers of ethylene vinyl acetate, styrene butyl acrylate, and nanomaterials – modified benzalkonium montmorillonite (MMT) and thermally expanded graphite (EG) have been investigated. It has been proved that nanoclay and nanographite in the composition of nanocomposites enhance the thermal characteristics of the original polymers. It has been established that the thermal stability of the investigated compounds increases in a number: polymer<polymer-EG <polymer-MMT <polymer-MMT-EG. It has been shown that graphite systems are characterized by low swelling temperature (<200 °C), small length of stabilization region for swelling coefficient and significant mass loss of coke residue in the temperature range of 200–400 °C. It has been determined that the main positive action of nanographite is the barrier effect.  In turn, systems with MMT are characterized by a slowing of the onset of swelling, as well as a decrease in the swelling coefficient during thermal destruction of the intumescent system in the temperature range 200–700 °С. It has been shown that polymer-MMT nanocomposites have a positive effect on the formation of a coke layer with increasing its strength, density and adhesion to metal substrates. It has been found that the simultaneous presence of nanoclay and nanographite in the hybrid nanocomposite exhibits synergistic effects in the intumescent system: polymer-nanographite. Based on the obtained results, an intumescent basis of fire retardant paint was developed for steel structures, which can be applied to increase the limit of metal fire resistance.

Effect of Calendering on electrochemical characteristics of electrochemical capacitors                                                                                                         Chernysh O., Makyeyeva I., Khomenko V, Barsukov  V.                                          Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

Electrochemical capacitor technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, many hurdles still need to be taken. This research was focused on the intensification of electrode fabrication processes. In particular, studies were conducted on the effect of calendering of polymer-carbon composition on its characteristics.  Activated carbon-based electrodes, composed of 4-6% PVDF and 5% carbon percolator, were coated on current collectors. The electrodes were calendered differently. A comparison of the electrochemical performance of uncalendered and calendered electrodes was made. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of electrochemical capacitors and analysis of resistance measurements showed that hot calendering of the electrodes resulted in a large decrease (about 10 times) in contact resistance at the current collector – electrode interface.

Gas-phase crosslinking of the lignin on the nano-scale fumed silica surface        Nosach L.V.1, 2, Voronin E.F.1, Sevastyanova O.2                                                           1Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine        2KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology

A method for the polymerization modification of nanoscale fumed silica by crosslinking a lignin layer adsorbed on a nanosilica surface under a gas dispersion medium is described. A mixture of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of HCl proved to be the most effective crosslinking agent. It has been suggested that the crosslinking of lignin molecules occurs by a mechanism similar to the production of phenol-formaldehyde resins.

Keratin hydrolysates obtained from sheep wool from the leather industry            Berechet M.D., Gaidau C., Stanca M., Simion D.                                              National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather-Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division, Bucharest, Romania

 This work presents experiments in making biopolymer-based materials with smart functionalities from renewable resources in the leather industry, applicable in various areas. Keratin hydrolysates were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis in the presence of NaOH and CaO. The physico-chemical characterization, DLS and FT-IR analysis of keratin hydrolysates highlighted the rich content in protein and total nitrogen. The recovery of wool by-products from the leather industry leads to less waste and helps prevent environmental pollution.

Modeling of smoke generation of fireproof polymer compositions in dependence of the specific heat and thermal conductivity of the fireproofing filler                                                                                                                     Chulyeyeva O. V. 1, Plavan V. P. 2                                                                                                   1YUZHCABLE WORKS PJSC, Kharkiv, Ukraine                                                       2Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

The change in the light transmittance of smoke during combustion of polymer compositions with different quantitative and qualitative composition depending on the specific heat and thermal conductivity of fillers-flame retardants was investigated. Determined that at the same level of filling of polymer compositions the best performance in smoke-forming capacity (light permeability) have trihydrates of aluminum oxide, whose specific heat is in the range 5,625-6,584 J/g·K, and thermal conductivity (4,8-6,3)×10-1 W m·K.

The influence of nanoparticles of metal oxides on the formation of microfibrile polypropylene in the copoliamide matrix                                                   Rezanova N. M., Budash Yu. O., Plavan V. P.                                                          Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design

The effect of nanoparticles of different metal oxides on the formation of a dispersed phase component of in situ microfibrils in a thermodynamically incompatible polypropylene/copolyamide (PP/SPA) mixture was studied. It is shown that the introduction of 1.0 wt.% nanoadditives contributes to improving the morphology of the system – the average diameter of PP fibrils decreases, and their mass fraction increases. On the example of mixtures filled with aluminum oxide nanoparticles, a decrease in the surface tension (γαβ) and an increase in the resistance of liquid PP jets to decay into droplets were found. It was found that increasing the degree of deformation of the dispersed phase droplets and the formation of thinner microfibrils is facilitated by changing the values ​​of the viscosities and elasticities of the melts of the nano powered PP and the matrix and converging them to unity. The results demonstrate the ability to obtain microfiber materials with improved filtering characteristics by adjusting the phase morphology of the initial blend.

Influence of composition solubility parameter on nucleation polymerization of metacryl ethers                                                                                                    Semeniuk N.B., Skorokhoda V.J., Dudok H.D                                                            Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

The effect of the solubility parameter on the regularities of obtaining polymer dispersions based on copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was investigated. The influence of the nature and amount of solvent on the dispersion characteristics of the polymer particles has been established. Proposed an effective dispersion medium for the polymerization of GEM and GMA. It was shown that the size and dispersion of the particles are greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the monomer.